Equality of Educational Opportunity refers to where all human beings get equal chances of development and there is no discrimination. It means that equality is characterized by equal opportunity. Everyone gets equal chance/opportunity for education.
Equality for educational opportunity means that the state should be devoid of discrimination on grounds of caste, sex, religion, region, race, language, etc. Every state has a moral responsibility that without any discrimination every person should get the equal opportunity of education. It is very essential for a democratic society.
The Preamble of our Constitution reads:
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith, and worship;
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity of the Nation;
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
Article 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 of the Constitution of India explain equality:
1. Equality Before the Law: As per Article 14 of the Constitution of India, the state will make equal laws for all and will enforce it equally. The state will not deprive any individual in the territory of India from the protection of equality or equal law. Every individual will be able to seek the protection of the court for the protection of his rights.
2. Elimination of Discrimination on Grounds of Religion, Race, Caste, Sex or Place of Birth: As per Article 15 of the Constitution of India, the state will not discriminate against any individual on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex and place of birth, etc. No citizen will be forbidden to use public places like wells, tanks, baths, hotels, cinemas etc.
3. Equal Opportunities for State Services: As per Article 16 of the Constitution, no discrimination will be exercised against any citizen for any government employment, appointment or post only on grounds of religion, caste, class or race. Thus, all citizens of India can occupy any post in India however high it may be. No discrimination will be made between a man and woman.
4. Abolition of Untouchability: Article 17 has eradicated untouchability forever. Enforcing any qualification arising from untouchability has been declared as a crime.
5. Prohibition of Decoration: During the British rule, the people were given decorations on the basis of their property etc. which created discrimination in the social life. Article 18 of the Constitution provides that no citizen will be able to accept any decoration, other than military and education, from any foreign state without the permission of the President.
Right to Constitutional Remedies: Dr. B.R. Ambedkar called Article 32 of the Indian Constitution as the Heart and Soul of the Constitution. Article 32 provides for constitutional remedies against the violation of fundamental rights.